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Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Sy, Syndrome, System, Symmetry, Synonym, Sycamore, Syllogism, Synchrony, etc.

Syndrome meaning. Syndrome is the combination of the two roots of Albanian.
The roots are:

#1: sy 'eye'.
#2: ndro 'change'.

We know already the meaning of change. Being a native Albanian speaker, I am going to analyse the compound meaning of "eye change". It generally means when the eyes change they are different from before, which in Albanian is very clear as concept having *ndryshe, which is Albanian word for different. *Ndryshe has the same root with *ndro, but with a specific meaning. The definition of the concept of "change" in Albanian does not need a dictionary to be explained using "different form before" because *ndryshe 'different' and *ndro 'change' came from the same root *ndro-y. The concept is there, in the words itself.

There are a lot of possibilities. One of them is blinking, when eyelids cover both eyes simultaneously, which leads to a concept like "running them together", which later also can be re-generalized again to a new concept. The eyelids work like a system, they close simultaneously the eyes in blinking. they close the eyes at the same time precisely, which also lead to the concepts * synchronous: simultaneous occurrence; synchronicity, synchrony, synchronism.

Another case could be when someone is sick: “Eyes are a place to look for signs of newly acquired illness. The eyes are the window to the soul — and to a host of travel-related illnesses, according to a new report in a medical journal, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease.” (Los Angeles Times, January 9, 2005; (

Etruscan Script, bronze in the Louvre, Museum.
System meaning: A very important word linked also with the root /sy/ is system.
The general definition of the system is: a set of connected things that work together for a particular purpose, in which the eyes are the best logical example. The term "system" is an intentional enrichment of meaning based to a prototypical case. They are two body parts that do together at the same time the same function, not like the hands, or the legs, which can move differently from each other, and for a particular purpose: only for seeing. When they move for seeing they are also in *synchrony.

The "sy" can produce a very long list of concepts: Syndrome, System, Symmetry, Synonym, Sycamore, Syllogism, Symbol, Sympathetic, Synchronic, Similar,Vision, Visible, etc, which are examples of our internal dimension of language unity.
Why the Albanian word for eye has the original meaning?
Let’s go further back.
Osiris was an Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol. Egyptians wrote the hieroglyph as it is shown below:

According to the linguists who deciphered Egyptian, Osiris was an Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol.
The hieroglyph meant an Egyptian god. Linguists think there is only a hieroglyphic symbol, however there are in fact three symbols: a seat, an eye, and a seated figure of a man. It has being said by professionals of the Egyptian language that the names of gods are written first in a hieroglyphic sentence, regardless of the grammatical position of their name within the sentence. In the Osiris hieroglyph is a little difficult to be determined which side is the “first” regardless of the space position of the symbols. Supposing that the linguists are right, we have a problem to the three symbols. There is only a man, and he should logically be the symbol of god, but the eye is above and the seat and seated figure are in the same horizontal level. Logically Egyptians were using same principals in writing. Which side was the “first for Egyptian? Was it the above position, on high, or the below position? Was it the right side or the left when the objects are at the same level? We do not know. Linguists only have supposed it was like they accepted as a truth, but I have to say the really truth is not known. We should say “probably” in these cases of research.

I am going to try to find another probable meaning of Osiris hieroglyph. I think the first position is above; and after is the right position. So, from above to the right, form the right to the left. The sentence for me has the meaning: “The eye is seeing you, seated”. There is not any name of a god, but it is a concept of god. The concept is “God always sees you wherever you are placed (seated)”. That god was the eye-god, which came from an older way of thinking about the eye, earlier thoughts, which are based on the eye features, very important for their existence,  and it refers to the eye-god as above all us; as it is the eye of  Horus as well. The Egyptian "Osiris" meaning we know is not in the original meaning, and it obscures the sense. As a conclusion, the really meaning is: he is an eye-god.
The Albanian verb for see "shikoj" stands also for :
SHIKOJ, kal: Kujdesem për dikë a për diçka, e ndihmoj, e shoh, e vështroj; ruaj. ' See, transitive: To take care of someone, or something, help, .. ; or protect.'

  • Albanian Dictionary
^ Sy m. sh.'eye'
1. Organi i të parit te njeriu dhe te kafshët, që
ndodhet në pjesën e përparme të kokës ose anash

"Literally translated:
^Eye m (masculine)
1. The organ of seeing in human beings and in the animals, that is located in anterior part of the head."

Shikoj, kal:
6. Kujdesem për dikë a për diçka, e ndihmoj, e shoh, e vështroj; ruaj.
Translated: See, transitive: 6. To take care of someone, or something, helphim/it, .. ; protect.

  • Martin Camaj, 1984, Albanian Grammar, pg.21.
Indefinite singular sy, Indefinite plural sy, definite singular syri (standart), (my note:in the Tosk Albanain dialect:Si, definite singular:Siri.),  syni(geg), definite plural syt(ë), accusative syrin (tosk), synin (geg).
  • System 1610s,  "the whole creation, the universe," from L.L. systema "an arrangement, system," from Gk. systema "organized whole, body," from syn- "together" + root of histanai "cause to stand" from PIE base *sta- "to stand", ..(
  • A system (from  Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma, "whole compounded of several parts or members, system", literary "composition" is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole. (
  • Stephen C. Levisnon-2000, Presumptive meanings: The Theory of generalized conversational implicature.
  • Newmark, Leonard. 1998. Albanian-English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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