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Monday, September 3, 2012

Anatolian language.



A very interesting new point of view about the origin of the language is Quentin Atkinson’s reaserch of the University of Auckland in New Zeland.
(Science 24 August 2012: Vol. 337 no. 6097 pp. 957-960 DOI: 10.1126/science.1219669).

His group found a decisive support for an Anatolian origin of Indo-European language. According to his research the seedling of the tree of IE began 8,000 to 9,500 years ago from Anatolia together with the agricultural expansion.

Like every research it started with a menu of vocabulary items based on the premise they are resistant to linguistic change like:

X-Premise
English
mother
father
 German
mutter
vater
Russian
mat
отец
Italian
madre
padre
Persian
madar
-
Polish
matka
ojciec
Latin
mater
pater
Albanian
Am
At

Or:

X-Premise-pronouns
English
I
 German
Ich
Russian
Я (ya)
Italian
Io
Polish
ja
Latin
ego
Albanian
Unë



















Is the premise true?

Some thinkers believe that the first speakers of the proto-Indo-European were shepherds from the Black Sea about 4,000 years ago.

Some others believe that the first Indo-European speakers were peaceable farmers in Anatolia, now Turkey, about 9,000 years ago.

The 4000 years of the language history or 9000 are not enough to find the root of a language family because everything has a very beginning, which from the evidence we have is far back away in time and the place is Africa. When they moved from Africa they had already had a certain level of the language. We do not know in our times how to find out it and especially which language items passed to the human branches, when and the quantity of that language to each branch, but it does not mean that it is not inside the Indo-European language, or into any other language family.

Some authors still think that 'our ancestors didn't live in trees, apes never turned into humans…', and consequently “the history of mankind must be rewritten” , which sound like a modern version of Bible.

Some other authors think that around 6 million years ago the ape family split into two branches: pre-chimpanzees and Hominids.

Evidence says it started by hominids in Africa. Hominids had a bigger brain than their ape accentors and distinguished from their ancestors by upright walking, which made possible for the first time for all animal groups to have the hands free, a very powerful biological tool, and consequently to have tools made by them, and consequently from the complex of evolution to posses the language. The first speakers of every language were Africans circa 200000 years ago.

From hominids to homo sapiens, from primitive prehistoric technology based on stone-wood materials for cutting and opening plants and fruits they gathered to the hunting tools technology, from hunting of animals to the tools to strike a human enemy, from food tools to building tools, from building to the agriculture and its respective technology, from the stone-wood tools material to the metal, from primitive language to the modern languages, humans beings constantly are going through sets of evolutional stages being changed and changing their world physically, technologically and linguistically. Along the way, each stage can be ahead or behind the others for different human groups in their timing after they were spread, or some stages can not even be for some human groups, which can be confusing for some thinkers, linguists and scientists.
Some human branches of the Africa group did not survive in Europe-Asia. Some that survived were ahead the others at developmentally. Some human groups made as much progress as the rest creating new ways of making food. Every progress made was directly related to the language. To develop a new way of making food , for example, the agriculture, it is not only related with the new physical world, new tools and action they had to make and name simultaneously, but also it is at the same time a new way of thinking. Every stage developed new ways of thinking. So, there are  8 big stages:

1. First Conscious level under selective pressure to find food: Plant, fruits, and whatever eatable thing. Trial-error era. Africa.
2. Hunting. Africa. France.
3. Domestication of animals. Europe-Vinca-Turdas.
4. Building. Europe-Vinca-Turdas-Anatolia-Egypt.
5. Agriculture.Europe-Vinca-Turdas-Anatolia.
6. A new organizational way of the human society-USA.
7. Industry. Europe-North America.
8. New way of thinking-language: High technology: North America. The Linguistic consequence: English has more words than most comparable World languages.

Any of these stages has its language. The dominated language has been always the language which has accumulated the best of previous stages and it was new developed in the place of a new origin where the human concentrations grow and spread new ways of thinking.

We do not know exactly how it happened, but we have enough evidence that it happened and there was a moment when started a new evolution stage of living world. If humans and their language have nothing to do with the evolution there would be just some modern skeletons, some modern tools like our modern nuclear bomb and a full language like English.

Several branches of science, excluding linguistics that I still do not consider as a science, are looking in this direction to draw a conclusion acceptable to the majority.

As a matter of fact, it is much more complex than some researchers think. The answer about the IE languages origin can not be summed up in one research. It is so difficult because it is pretty connected with the answer of another question how language is built. Without understanding at the same time as one point how language is made and how the human’s development is related with the language we may not fully understand the origin of the IE.

The language is related with the evolution, and especially with the higher developments of some human branches. Some branches developed tools and invented ways of making more food and more comfortable houses which had a major consequence on the increase of the number of population, but at the same time impacted the language having more words, new ways of thinking, more qualitative thoughts, etc. They developed and applied new technologies until there were not anymore room for the increase of the population, and they started to disperse peacefully, in a natural way in all directions where the lands were almost empty, and during other millenniums became those who today have dozens of different names and languages. The evidence says that one of those centers on the vertical axis of the time was Anatolia.Their language has links with all languages, especially with Indo-European languages, but it has especially more tight connections with the oldest one, and the closest with respect to their territory , and especially linguistic connections with the northwest of Europe: Norse, Old German, Hungarian, North French, Basque, Irish, Scottish, Old English, Balto-Slavic.

Do we have linguistic evidence about that hypothesis?

Yes, we have. It is under the skin of all languages. The problem is that our linguistic and scientific level is not so developed to be able to discover it.

During the new researches, all possibilities should be considered, between them also the possibility of hierarchical spread before Anatolian time, and after Anatolian time.

There could be also the possibility of spreading waves of Anatolia's descendants to their land of their origin thousand of years later, which did not change the substantial of their language if there did not take place between a qualitative evolutional stage, however, it may give a wrong direction of the origin of the IE, a distorting influence. We should not limit the factors which are involved. More possibilities should be taken in consideration which forces to increase the methods of analysis and during building up new methods we should not rule out some very important factors, for example, the phonetic changes.

According to Lugi Cavalli Sforza research the Albanians are the only survivors of those who have lived there for thousand of years

Also, there is enough evidence that Albanian and Armenian are the only languages which have survived having a gross intact from the Anatolian language.
Language changec
The language is like a living organism that always has had its parties of stabilities and its parties of changes and new word additions during its evolution. Elements of the stability and change states are ina logical equation as a progress of L=L1+L2+  …+Ln, where Li are the stages until the“n” current time.There is an equation: Li= Si+CHi+NWi, where the set of language is always an evolution of three main elements of it: S-unchangeable parts, CH-changeable parts, N-new parts.

The concepts of language stability, the language items which stay always resistant to the linguistic change, language changeability, and language increasibility are very subtle. Here we have to use some logic tools to clarify philosophically those terms because we never can have data about it, and in order to build a premise as true as possible using the analogy with other concepts we have accepted as a part of the truth about the origin of universe, stars, sun, nonliving and living world, etc.

So, at the same time the language resistances to changes, changes and grows. As the language grows a human group is more able of guaranteeing more and better communication. As the language grows also that factor impacts the human brain in a reverse process as a mechanism making them more human; growing also the brain physically, making more progress; making it easier for development to reach humans objectives more effectively, and making easier for humans to fulfill their needs.

There is one universal law: Everything comes from elementary elements which under specific reactions and interactions become very complex unities of existence. After the first cycle of their very first creation they go through several stages. I used the “very first creation” because every living and nonliving thing after the big creation cycle is always in endless subcreations cycles. Unities of existence after their very first creation give birth sub-first creations ,what I code as to be born a new existence never been before, when old elements are being transformed in new elements, for which the moment of sub-first creation of a mother element into a new element is a very first creation for the new creations, but the mother elements continue to live desegregated on their old forms and at the same time it lives inside new creations in new solid combinations forms.

The language cannot be excluded from the universal law. In our actually level of knowledge we can not know the language universal law deeply.

Quentin Atkinson started with a quantitative method which is seemingly ahead everyone else, only to find out when, and where the  the first Indo-European speakers were living in one of the verges of the Human evolution. His method is reliable, and I hope from that we will understand the origin of the language more.
Congratulations Mr. Atkinson!

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